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May 11, 2010



MEKELLE UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS
DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS


                           UNEMPLOYMENT PROBEMS IN RBAN ETHIOPIA
                                       (A CASE STUDY OF MEKELLE)

   A research proposal submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Bachelor of art degree in economics

   By: Binyam Araya
   ID No: CBE/UR 0556/02

                                      ADVISOR:  Girma  Barhe (MSc)


                                                                                                                                June, 2012
                                                                                                                    Mekelle, Ethiopia











ACRONYMS
    CSA= central static authority
    ILO=International labor origination
    LFOSBCSA= Labor Force Survey by Central Statistical Agency
    NGO=non-governmental organizations
   OCED =organization for economic co-operation and development
   LDC= lower developed countries
   MOLSA=ministry of labor and social affairs


          


















Abstract
Unemployment had been a serious problem of international economy  from the period of  great depression where higher level of unemployment existed in the world .the present study was under taking to find what cause and consequence of unemployment in Tigray region ,focused that unemployment in Mekelle city is the serious problem in finding of jobs.
       The major time being of the research, include the characteristics (compositions) and the structure of unemployment of the study area cause of unemployment some social and economic political consequence of unemployment.












Acknowledgement
First and for most almighty God ,the provider the all knowledge for going me the opportunity to successful completion thought my paper work I  would like to express my sincerely thanks to my advisor Girmaybarhe (MSc)  for his constructive goodness advice and fairly full suggestions and comments which help me to organize the paper at this form.
       I would also like to express my deepest gratitude to my family to brother and sister especially for helping me by pray and morally .Last but not least, I would like to thanks to all my friends that extend that me to for the paper accomplishment of the research paper.















Table of Contents
Chapter one. 3
1.1    Background of study. 3
1.2 Statement of the problem.. 3
1.3 Objective of the study. 5
1.4 methodology of the study. 5
1.4.1 Data collection method. 5
1.5 Significance of study. 6
1.6 scope of the study. 6
Chapter two. 7
2.1 Theoretical literature review.. 7
2.1.1 Definition of urbanization and unemployment and types. 7
2.1.5 Theories of unemployment. 9
2.1.3 Special   Features of youth unemployment. 10
2.1.4 The Magnitude and Nature of urban Unemployment I n Ethiopia. 13
2.2 Empirical literature. 16
2.2.1 Unemployment in Ethiopia. 17
Chapter 3. 21
3. Data analysis and Presentation of Results. 21
3.1 Back Ground Information of Respondents. 21
3.2 Causes of unemployment. 24
3.3 consequence of unemployment. 29
3.4    Possible solution of the Urban Unemployment Problem.. 30
Chapter four. 35
4. Conclusionand recommendation. 35
4.1 Conclusion. 35
4.2   Recommendation. 36

Chapter one

1.1    Background of study

       Now many developing countries are unique combination of massive rural urban population Movement stagnation of agriculture productivity and growing urban rural unemployment is one of the critical socio economic problems facing the least developing countries like Ethiopia While the labor force growth is adequate to observe labor market entrants as result youth are   more affected by unemployment. according to the international labor organization (ILO) is defined as the pool of above a specified age that are without work but seeking work and available for Work during period of reference. All the three condition must be present for a person to be considered as unemployed. The problem of youth unemployment is high in May 2010 especially Tigray region youths unemployment is 18,2%,for male 10,6%and female 25,7% ,Addis Ababa 29,9%,for male 17,9%and female 36,1%and Amhare  region 15,7%for male 8,9% and female 22,8%(CSA April  2004-May 2010) . The rapid population growth and high level of rural urban migration contribute to high level of Total unemployment population is 1,653,685 which female 1225,770 and male 427,915 according to this urban area 894,177 and rural area 759,508 (unemployment by gender and age by of (CSA2005) .Low returns to labor as well as high unemployment indicate poverty. Which in turn makes difficult to invest in education and healthy that would increase a person productivity and economic development .unemployment youth people tend to concentrate urban area the social aspect of the problem lies in the association of unemployment with social exclusive and sense of hopelessness. The inadequate employment situation of youth has a numbered of socio economic, political and moral consequences .unemployment implies the failures to make use of important factors of production for fostering economic growth.

1.2 Statement of the problem

Most of the time major problem faced by the people is the problem of unemployment and urban unemployment of development, population growth has a great impact for the expansion of urban unemployment and rural unemployment, specially this problem has been seeking in lease development.  It creates economics and social problems that prevent development become stronger (Todaro,1994).Unemployment is the macroeconomics problem that affects people most directly and seriously, for most people, the loss of a job means a reduced living standard and psychological problem. It is no surprise that unemployment is a frequent to piece of political debate and those politicians of the claim that their proposed policies would help create jobs (Mankiw, 2000). In 1950 Ethiopia had a population 15 million in 1990 it had an estimation and population of 63 million out of which 52 million live in rural area, the reaming in urban area with population projection to be 169 million people in the year 2050,
Ethiopia will be the 19th the most populations Country in the world and second in Africa after Nigeria (knife,2000).The number of rural urban migration and hold tremendous implications for the proportion of those who will be entering the working age group can be affect there sample size. Similarly in Mekelle city the problem of population growth and underemployment growth is since in 1995 Mekelle had population projection of 100,508 in 2009 had an estimated. population projection of 193,473 out of which 108,583 are working age population with populations with population projection to be 202,162 in year 2010 .Mekelle will have 112,512 working age population (CSA2005  population projection of Tigray region).Similarly, in Mekelle city The problem of population growth and unemployment growth is seen in 1995.Mekelle had population of 100,508 in 2009 had an estimated population projection of 193,473. Out of which 108,583 are working age population with population projection to be 200,162 in year 2010. Mekelle will have 112,512 working age population (c.s.a population projection of Tigray region).From 70,005 economically active population local unemployment in 2005 in 15,107 of which 8997 are female in this year unemployment rate for male and female is 18,8 and 24,6 respectively in the same year unemployment rate among 15-19 age group ,20-24 age group and25-29 age group are 27% and 24,55 respectively (CSA 2005) now day it estimated ,
That about 200,000 populations live in Mekelle .Among these population 40% are unemployed (CSA ‘1997) such crucial problem limited the study to look at problem of both population growth and their consequence on socio economic activities of the city. This all figures show the effect of growth of population to unemployment problem in rural and urban area .most of the researchers concerned on cause, problem of population growth city, push, and pull factor of city.  I will want to show or paper is found out the dimension, cause effect and consequence of youth unemployment in urban area specific in Mekelle town.

1.3 Objective of the study

General objective is unemployment problems in urban Ethiopia (case study in Mekelle city)
The specific objective can be           
1.       To analyses the causes of  unemployment
  3   .To examine the consequences of unemployment problem In Mekelle town
  4.   To come up with some possible solutions for the problem

1.4 methodology of the study

1.4.1 Data collection method

This study was as use primary source  of data  and In this type of data collection the researcher was use questionnaire because questionnaire is the most .Popular sources of data gathering instrument the questionnaire was having moved closed ended types of questions, this because closed ended types of questions was standard answers and can be compared from person to person. In the study, the researcher uses simple random sampling technique, these because in simple random sampling each unit of the population is giving an equal chances of being selected male and female.  The researchers took 45 respondents of the town with skill and without skill .They are 15 men and 25 women unemployed .the total numbered in town are estimated about 193,515. The  reason is manageable and financial and time constraints in the year of 2011 out of 5950 male youth unemployed ,the remaining are 11697 female youth unemployment .there for 45 unemployment people are randomly selects  from 25 Keble and 7 woreda. participated in  giving information  about the study respondents are select from seven Keble 01,11,03,18,19 ,14 and 16 ,each Keble  has select tow mane  and four women only  one keble has  selected tow man there female .the questioner distributed the version of Tigrigna .
The study was analyzing the data through tabulation and percentages. Most of respondents answered there question are change in to numbered and percentage. Primary data is collected from individual unemployed person and analyzed by using descriptive methods.

1.5 Significance of study

The study is significant for several reasons, among other to mention too few. The study deals with the problem of rapid population growth and unemployment .which is the main problem of development ,therefore such study may help policy makers and other respective on their offer to achieve better resource allocation in general and reducing unemployment particular . 

1.6 scope of the study

As regard to the coverage or scope of the study, urban area with a particular emphasis of Mekelle city is taken as a point of reference .among the major played youth in city due to different reasons such as migrating from the rural area to get job and education service, because of the concentration of these service mainly concentrate in place like Mekelle.













Chapter two

2.1 Theoretical literature review

2.1.1 Definition of urbanization and unemployment and types

Urbanization is the increase in the proportion of people living in town and cities. A cause of urbanization occurs because people move from rural areas (country side to urban area, towns and city).this usually occurs, when a country is still developing.
   The three main causes of urbanization in low developed countries since 1995 are
1. Rural to urban migration is happing    massive scale due to population pressure and lack of resources in rural areas this are “push factors”.
2. People living in rural area are “pulled” to the city often they believe that the standard of living in urban area will be much better than in rural area usually wrong people also hope for well-paid jobs.
3. Nature increase caused by a decrease in death rates while birth rate reaming high. Since 1950 urbanization has slowed in more economically developing countries and now some of the biggest city are losing population ad people move away from the city .to rural environments. This known counter urbanization. Counter urbanization is the movement of people out of cities to the surrounding areas, since 1950 this Process has been occurring in more economically developed countries.

       Unemployment is a situation in which workers are, jobless because there, is no work for them to do each if they are prepared because there is no work for. Them to do each if they are prepared to and would accept  lower wages .the measurement of unemployment is based on the following three criteria’s that must be satisfied simultaneously “without work” current available for work and “seeking work” the  standard definition o f unemployment is based on the “seek work” criteria  that can be interpreted as activity or efforts undertaken  By prior .unemployment is measured by taking in to account the labor force which is the sum of employed  Plus that of unemployed .those who are unemployed are without work but are actively searching for work, the employed ones are those who are working at least one of hour in a week for pay an unpaid work per week in family business (Mankiw 136-143)
                                 UR =NU/LF*100
          UR=unemployment rate
          LF=labor force
         NU =number of unemployment
Types and cause of unemployment            
Smith 2000 and most of scholars have identified four types of unemployment with their respective cause.
  1-seasonal unemployment; Is caused by both supply side and demand side seasonal fertilities seasonally .variations in products  Demand, such as seasonal fertilities, planned to variations and the demand for labor assisted in the production Of that commodity .production seasonality from the supply side and such as has tin of agriculture produce Lands to the seasonal variation in above demand(Smith 2000).
2- Cyclic unemployment or demand deficient ;Is caused by unemployment arise due to inadequate effective aggregate demand .gross Domestic product may not be as high potential output of demand shrink due to expectation with Discourage private investment spending, low government spending  or high taxes ,no private consumption. Low exports, net import, under demand deficient unemployment   cyclic condition. The number of unemployment worker for exist the number of job vacancy or available jobs (Smith, 2000).
3-Frictional unemployment; Caused by lack of necessary skill for doing a particular job, immobility of labor, breakdown of machinery ,Shortage of raw materials and change in technology of product .the amount of friction of unemployment Depends on the frequency with which workers change jobs, and the time it takes to find new once when Workers are free to guilt their jobs. However, some frictional unemployment will always present if economy at full employment (ibid).
4. Structural unemployment:  has caused by lack of knowledge on the particulars of employers about the availability of workers or off workersabout the availability of jobs. this is involves a mismatch between the workers looking for jobs and vacancies availability .even though the number of vacancies may be equal to the number of the unemployed ,the unemployed workers look the skills needed for the jobs in the wrong part of the country take the jobs offered (ibid).

2.1.5 Theories of unemployment

The four major theory of unemployment has discussed of the following (Smith 1997.)
A-classical theory of unemployment 
main characteristic of this theory is that the labor market force of supply and demand respond to change in the real wages beginning and  remaining too high to allow the labor market to clear ,government wage lariat and trade union are identifying as  significant  casual factor consequence ,unemployment in the classical system realized up on markets not clearing ,the polices recommendation forward from classical analyses of unemployment in that reduced government regulation and reduces trade union power to make labor competitive in the market(smith 1997.)
B- neo-classical theory of unemployment
The neo- classical economical school focused on choice on techniques. That a best cost of minimization boundless of factor production, thus Approach   a voids focusing on the social possess which determines incorporation of labor power in to production; labor and capital Are, reviewed as factor price wise, the relative cheapens of capital in relation labor on the terms of technological consideration related to the non –sustainability of the capital for labor or what has been dominated of production problem. (ibid)
C- Keynesian theory of unemployment                 
Keynesian economics emphasize the aggregate condition of economic and labor force disequilibrium that emerge from the instability of market force  re stabilization full employment equilibrium  Keynesian recognized some unemployment on job to other (Schervish 1983). Never tresses in the work of the great person keynes(1936).Formulated his history of involuntary .unemployment in which workers are an ability to located job even when offering to work at the labor lags because the demand for goods and services land to behind to the capacity of  economy to produce them (ibid) 
D-Marxist theory of unemployment
Marxist analysis like the Keynesian approach is at the aggregate level “in the Marxist traditional, unemployment derives from the Marxist traditional ,unemployment derives from the general and normal anarchism of the market economy in which what power beneficiary for an  individual firm is distinction for the system as whole “this individual firms  maximize  profit and enjoy their must efficiency production at level of employment that fails to provide employment for forces as whole (Scherivish 1983)

2.1.3 Special   Features of youth unemployment

The figures on youth unemployment conceal crucial differences across different groups of youths, such as urban youth, young women and those with lower educational attainment.

A. Urban vis-à-vis rural unemployment;the preceding discussion of youth unemployment conceals crucial differences across rural andurban areas. Like the entire population, the majority of youth live in rural areas. It was shown above that rural participation rates were much higher than urban participation rates. Open youth unemployment appears to be characteristic of urban centers, and rose sharply between 1984 and 1994. In contrast, the youth unemployment rate in rural areas was only 0.7 per cent in 1984, 1.2 per cent in 1994 and 7.2 per cent in 1999. These findings are consistent with those of Gebreselassie and Krishnanz (1999) who report sharply rising youth (15-29 years old) urban unemployment between 1990 and 1997. We are reminded that unemployment is typically not an option in rural area

B. Unemployment by gender;Women have lower participation rates and face higher level of unemployment compared to theirmale counterparts. Empirical evidence indicates that the unemployment rate among young women (20-24) was 38.7 per cent while it was only 23.2 per cent for young men in that age category during the same year.31 These figures stand in contrast with the general trend for the Sub-Saharan region, where the unemployment rates for young men (23.1 per cent) exceed those for young women (18.4).32 The unemployment rates for the total labor force, youth and urban youth, disaggregated by gender, are. The data indicate that women experience higher levels of unemployment than their male counterparts in Ethiopia. This is consistently true for all working age groups (10 years and above), for all youth (both urban and rural youth) as well as for urban youth across all reference periods. This coincides with the findings on rural vs. urban unemployment. Unemployment rates have increased more for women than for men over the five years prior to 2004. In 1999, the youth unemployment rate among women was 17.3 per cent, compared to 6.8 per cent among men. The urban female youth unemployment rate was 43.7 per cent compared to 29.4 per cent for urban male youth. This concurs with the findings from MOLSA data on registered job seekers. In 2003, female job seekers accounted for 56 per cent of the total registered job seekers.33 this upward trend in unemployment is, in part, a consequence of the increased participation of women in the labor force and in education.
 C. Unemployment by educational levels; It has often been argued that unemployment is high amongst educated youth in developing countries. The empirical evidence is mixed, however. O’Higgins (1997, 2003) reviews the experience of various countries and argues that there is no strong evidence to support the existence of widespread educated unemployment in developing countries. The rates of return to education are substantially higher in developing countries than in the OECD, and all evidence counters the notion of an impoverished and disadvantaged group of educated young people in developing countries. For Ethiopia, it is clear from the numbers in figure 15 that there are higher levels of unemployment for those with lower levels of education. The same picture emerges for youth. The figures reveal some unemployment amongst educated urban youth. Highly educated (beyond Grade 12) unemployment constitutes only a minimal proportion of the total unemployed in both rural and urban areas. This is also reflected in the data from registered jobseekers data registered unemployed people, 14,701 (62 per cent) had some form of secondary school education. A recent survey of unemployment in urban areas reveals an increase in unemployment rates of young people, who have attained high school or a higher educational level. This could be due to a mismatch between the type of education provided at schools and the requirements of the labor market.
   D. Transitory vis-à-vis structural unemployment: the high incidence of youth unemployment, its persistence and the long job search time involved lead to discontent and disillusionment among the youth. Moreover, long-term unemployment has Deskilling and scarring effects. Two alternative theories on structural unemployment among youth exist .The first argues that youth face a higher incidence of long-term unemployment than adults.

The competing argument is that the unemployment of young people is relatively transitory. Youths experience a higher level of unemployment rate compared to older people, but this is because of the tendency of youth to shop around in the labor market. This does not last very long, however, and youth would eventually have a lower average duration of unemployment than older people. 1981 indicate that employment in the government (public) sector accounted for more than 94 per cent of formal sector employment while the share of private sector employment was less than 6 per cent. Thus, employment opportunities largely depended on the performance of the public sector during the last regime. Studies, however, indicate that increases in the employment opportunities in the government sector were extremely low compared to the annual increase in the labor force (ILO 1986). With the increase in the role of the private sector after the downfall of the communist military regime in 1991 and liberalization of the economy, employment in the formal private sector is expected to show some growth. One of the thrusts of the strategies of the Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction Programmer (SDPRP) of the current Ethiopian government is in fact ‘strengthening private sector growth and development especially in industry as a means of achieving off-farm employment and output growth. The two major public employers are the industrial sector and the civil service.

The industrial sector consists of mining and quarrying, manufacturing, construction, electricity, gas and water as well as construction. The largest employer out of these sub-sectors is manufacturing, in which more than 1.1million people worked in 1999. Moreover, youth are equally represented in manufacturing compared to establishment of government offices at regional, district and lower tiers. Owing to the decentralization process, the size of the civil service has shown significant growth in the 1990s. Total employment in the civil service grew, on average, by 6.61 per cent per year between 1995 and 2003, providing employment opportunities to 388,903 people in 2003, which is nearly four-fold the employment in manufacturing. Employment of youth aged 18-22 grew, on average, by 4.29 per cent per year between 1995 and 2003, while employment in the age group 23-27 grew by 7.35 per cent per year. Moreover, both age groups (18-22 and 23-27) together accounted for more than 26 per cent of total employment in the civil service .More than three-quarters of youth work in agriculture, which is characterized by low productivity and low per capita income. Employment in the industry sector generally comes with better working conditions as the sector tends to be formal and protected. Finally, the working conditions in services are mixed depending on the type of work.

 The employment pattern of the youth population is comparable to that of the population as a whole. In 1999, compared to the entire population, a slightly lower percentage of youth worked in agriculture and industry, whereas a slightly higher percentage of youth worked in services. It should be noted that agriculture is characterized by low productivity and low income, several factors could account for this. Firstly, a slightly higher proportion of youth live in urban areas. Thus, youth might have a higher propensity to migrate than the overall population, seeking employment in services and in industry in urban areas. What is more, the growth in services is likely to also include growth of services in the informal economy.

2.1.4 The Magnitude and Nature of urban Unemployment I n Ethiopia

        Unemployment and underemployment continue to be serious social problems in Ethiopia Despite some improvementsin recent years. This is mainly a result of rapid population and labor force growth and limited employment generation capacity of the modern Industrial sector of the economy. The national rate of unemployment, which stood at 3.6% in 1999, declined to 2.6% in 2005. Open unemployment is not a common problem in rural areas. Underemploymentdefined as the proportion of workers who are "available and ready to work more hours” is a phenomenon of rural areas. However, this does not mean that underemployment is not a problem in urban areas. According to the Labor Force Survey by Central Statistical Agency, underemployment is highest amongMaleyouth and prime-age adults, and higher rural areas. In particular, the underemployment rate of urban male adults aged 25 to 39 stood at 20 to 25 percent in 2005.

The underemployment rate declined beyond the age of 40 at national level as well as for urban and rural residents (CSA, 2006). High urban unemployment rates remain a major policy challenge. According to the 2006 Urban Employment and Unemployment Survey, urban unemployment has consistently declined from 26.2 percent in 2003 to 22.9 percent in 2004 and further to 16.7 percent in 2006. Unemployment rate has been consistently higher among females than males across the years, 35.2% in 2003, 30.6% in 2004 and 22.1% in 2006. The corresponding rates for males stood at 17.6%, 15.8% and 11.5%, respectively. Urban unemployment, particularly youth unemployment being growing areas of concern for the Government, recent survey programs have been intended to cover only urban areas given that unemployment is an urban rather than a rural phenomenon. Rural-urban migration is considered to be the main contributing factor to urban population growth in Ethiopia. There is a widely shared view that rural-urban migration
In Ethiopia is increasing and is driven by the dwindling amount of farmland available to the rural population and also by the low level of agricultural productivity. The rural-urban migration has seasonal behavior and is considerable in different parts of the country. The majority of the employed labor force is found in the agricultural sector where earnings are low for the labor force to come out of poverty. A large size of the labor force is also engaged in the informal sector where underemployment, poor earning, and lack of institutional protection are the characteristic features. These realities nurture the problem of working poor in Ethiopia, making poverty more a result of poor earnings than open unemployment. According to CSA’s 2006 Urban Employment/Unemployment Survey, looking at the employed population by major occupations, nearly three-fourths of urban employed population of the country is engaged in three almost equally important major occupations: services, shop and market sales workers (25.5 percent), elementary occupation (23.6 percent), and craft and related activities (22.1 percent). Professionals together with technical and associate professionals make up about 10 percent of the employed population while those persons working in legislator and senior officials took the smallest share constituting a mere 2.5 percent of the total employed urban population of the country .


         According to the same survey, looking at the distribution of urban employed population by employment status of a person (at all-urban level), the bulk of employed population was constituted by self-employed (42 percent) followed by those employed by government and public enterprises (19 percent) and private organization (18 percent). As can be seen from Table 1.2, paid employees altogether constituted about 45 percent of the Total working population. Paid employees consist of employees of government, public Enterprises, private organization and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and Domestic employees. Unpaid family workers have a substantial share (10 percent).


According to existing studies, more than 50 percent of urban employment is accounted by the informal sector. According to the Informal Sector Survey (CSA, 2002), thetotal number of persons engaged stood at 997,380 of which 799,353(80%) were operators and the remaining 198027(20%) employees. Women dominate in both categories (operators and employees). The share of women in the total number of persons engaged, operators and employees stood at 60%, 59% and 65% respectively. As it stands now, the informal sector is not well integrated with the formal (organized) sector. A vertical and horizontal linkage does not seem to exist within the respective activities of informal sector operator.

2.2 Empirical literature

employment problemhas pointed out in his economic development book that historical the economic development of western Europe and north America has often been described in terms of the contentious transfer of economic activity and people from rural to urban area (Todaro, 1994).both within and between countries .as urban industries expanded new employment opportunity were created and over the same period, labor saving technological progress in agriculture reduced rural man manpower needs. The combination of the above two phenomena made it possible for western nation undergo a systematic rural to urban transfer of their human resources. On the basis  of western countries experience many economists  concluded that economic development in third world can be achieved  using transfer of manpower  form rural to urban  by promoting rapid urban industrialization .whereas when we come to the existing situation of third world countries the figure is different from that of western countries  .
According to O’Higgins, 2001 globally.the problem of youth unemployment is increasing assuming higher proportions than the adults. recently ILO estimate suggest that at least 60 million young people are without a job and that youth unemployment rates are on average three times as high as adult rates (ILO, 1998).in countries of the organization for economic co-operation and development (OCED) the unemployment rate of the 15-24 group in 1998 was 12.9% more than double the figure for adults which stood at 5.7% around 10 million young people are less figure are less widely available for developing countries. according to the demographic and health survey (2000), tow –third of women and 84% of men who live in urban areas have been to school, while 41%of women and 61% of men who live in urban area have reached to secondary level of education .but for more than 80% of Ethiopia’s population that live in rural areas, educational attainment is substantially lower, with 84% of women and 58%of man having never attended school, only 2% of women and 7% of men have  attained secondary level schooling in rural areas .residents  of the heavily urban areas of the country like Addis Ababa, Dire Dawa  and the Harare region have higher levels of educational attainment especially at the  secondary level or higher.Ndegua and powelson 1973 in most developing countries the working age population has roughly doubled in the past 25 years. it will double again in the next 25 years ,this growth clearly intensifies pressure on employment and the amount of investment available per labor market .entrants, worst of all ,in most of the LDCs .40 to 50 percent of the population is below 15 years of age if the economically productive age bracket is taken as 15 to 65 years. the percentage of population in this category is considerably less in poor countries .this “bottom heavy “age structure of population result in a higher ratio of dependent to adult workers (Meier 1995).the implication is that those working must share their incomes with those who don’t work and this leaves less for saving and accumulation moreover, with high population growth, a good deal of the national income is spent on the expansion of social services.
Which do not directly generate productive capacity Ghai (1988).in developing countries although, the figures are less widely available evidence.From variety of source indicates that there has been deterioration in employment situation,in Africa Asia and Latin America no less than 40% to 45% of the work force is unemployed /underemployed (Farooq, 1995).it is important to note that the in those countries is deeply rooted in their socio economic structures including the demographic base and education and training system.

2.2.1 Unemployment in Ethiopia

In this section, the Ethiopian labor market and studies on unemployment will be reviewed briefly. The following papers which are conducted on the unemployment situation in Ethiopia will be discussed: Krishnan (1996) on the role of family background for employment, Dendir (2000) on unemployment duration, Astatike (2003) on youth unemployment, Serneels (2004) on the nature of urban youth unemployment, and Haile (2008) on youth self-employment. The World Bank (2007) has also prepared a comprehensive study in two volumes on the urban labor market situation in Ethiopia. Ttowards growth and job creation in the face of increasing poverty and labor supply in urban Ethiopia.Background (especially fathers education)he report welcomes the government’s effort
Studies addressing urban unemployment in Ethiopia are relatively few and most of those surveyed in this paper concentrate on youth unemployment. Krishnan (1996) studies the role of family background and education on employment in urban Ethiopia and finds that family strongly affects entry to public sector employment but it is not significant in determining entry to lower status private employment. Entry to public sector employment is also affected positively by education while age (being older) positively affects being in the labor force.
Dendir (2000) studies unemployment duration in urban Ethiopia and finds that the mean duration is 3 years for completed spells and 4.7 years for incomplete spells. Astatike (2003), using data from the Ethiopian Urban Socio Economic Survey from 1994 to 2000, finds high urban youth unemployment in Ethiopia with more than 50% of the youth unemployed. Between the periods 1994-2000 teen age youth unemployment increased and was higher for women. Those from families of at least secondary school education are found to be affected less according to this study.
Serneels (2004), using the 1994 Ethiopian Urban Socio Economic Survey, studies the incidence and duration of unemployment in urban Ethiopia emphasizing on the youth. According to this study, in the year 1994 highest in the world with male unemployment standing at 34% and the urban youth unemployment rate was even higher at 50%. Serneels indicates that mean duration of unemployment is 4 years and those youth whose parents are civil servants have shorter durations. It is also indicated that public sector was the top employer hiring one third of the adult men. A negative relationship is found between unemployment incidence and duration, and household welfare. There is evidence that households reduce their savings and consumption to cope with unemployment. With regard to job aspirations, well-educated first time job seekers who aspire to well-paying jobs are more affected. On family background, Serneels concludes that effect for labor market performance in urban Ethiopia. Ethiopia urban  unemployment rate was one of the mothers education may play a role but fathers education has strong  Denu et al. (2005/07) study the characteristics and determinants of youth unemployment and underemployment in Ethiopia from 1984-2001. They conclude that the youth is substantially affected by unemployment and significant differences exist within the youth group across location (urban-rural), gender and education. The urban youth unemployment stood at 7.2% while it was 37.5% for the rural, the latter facing high rate of underemployment. Unemployment for the youth women was 17.3% in 1999 while it was 6.9% for their men counterparts. Regarding education, 44.5% and 32.6% of the unemployed youth were illiterate or had only primary education. The paper indicates that the private sector plays a huge role in employment as a result of policy change by the current government to promote the private
Sector as opposed to the previous government’s policy where most enterprise was government owned. Using data from the Ethiopian Urban Socio Economic Survey from 1994 to 2000, Haile (2008) studies the nature of self-and finds that the young, the educated, those that migrate to urban areas recently and those without parents in self-employment are less likely to be found in self-employment.for the first the time in Ethiopia  The World Bank (2007), with its report in two volumes, acknowledges important improvements in urban unemployment between 1995 and 2005 though the labor market situation remained unchanged. According this study, the rapid rise in the urban labor force creates pressure on the labor market and it can be seen as both a challenge and an opportunity for the Ethiopian government. The rising number of educated labor force entering the market each year as a result of education expansion and internal migration necessitate enhanced job creation in the country. Another feature of the Ethiopian urban labor market indicated in this study is the increasing literacy rate.
This is implicated in World Bank (2011) that the net primary school enrollment rate in Ethiopia increased to 87.9% in 2010 from 68.5% in 2005. Low wages characterize Ethiopian urban labor markets although it differs among the type of employers, sector and worker characteristics. Even though females are relatively less skilled yet, the literacy rate and their participation in the labor force is increasing. There is labor market segmentation with a relatively wanted public sector and formal private sector, and a large number of unemployed and a large informal sector with low wages and mostly occupied by women. Women in urban Ethiopia are relatively more affected by unemployment and they are paid lower wages (World Bank, 2007). As can be noted, many of the studies surveyed so far have concentrated on youth unemployment in urban Ethiopia and not many of them focused on general unemployment. The welfare impact of unemployment in urban Ethiopia is also found to be less explored. generally it is difficult to measure unemployment in less developed countries such as Ethiopia because of the lack of reliable records and the  existence of various informal types of work ,however ,based on minister of labor survey and numerous other analyses ,a general assessment of unemployment rate increase by 11.5 percent  annually during the 1979 -1988 period .by 1987/88  there were 715065 registered unemployed Workers in thirteen –six major town .of those registered 134117 ultimately found jobs ,living the reaming  580948 unemployed.
The urban labor force totally 1.7 million in 1988/89 the ministry of labor Indicated that government employed 523000 of those workers .the rest relied on private employment or self -employment for their livelihood. According to the government, rural unemployment was virtually nonexistent. A 1981/82 rural labor survey revealed that 97.5 percent of rural labor force worked 2.4 percent. did not work because of social reason and 0.1 percent had been unemployed during the previous twelve month .however ,it is important to not that unemployment as conventionally defined records only part of the story it lives out designed unemployment  and underemployment which were prevalent in both urban and rural areas for instance  The rural labor force survey found 50 %of those working where unpaid family workers what is the important about unemployment in Ethiopia a that with an expansion of labor force the public sector with an all ready swollen payroll and  acute budgetary problems was likely to absorb more than a tiny friction of those entering the labor market.

Chapter 3

3. Data analysis and Presentation of Results

This chapter deals with analysis and interpretation of the data the finding are present based on the data collected from primary source .the selection start with presentation and analysis of general characteristic of respondent followed by presentation, analyses and interpretation of the data result to the research issue.

3.1 Back Ground Information of Respondents

As indicate in the previous chapter  ,respondent are unemployed ,who are found in Mekelle  city  .from the total population that the town questioner  was distributed to  25 for  female and 15 for  male youth unemployment person ,the total questionnaire was to 40 youth unemployed  persons the general characteristics   of the respondent are illustrated in the following  table

As shown below ,the demographic indicate  as respondent  unemployment  age  among  youth men are found in the age (15-19 ) 12% and in age ( 20-25) 25 % the total youth male unemployment  are 37% as the youth unemployment  but the great part of unemployment rate  covers by female ,age (15-19%)22.5% ,( 20-25)40% the total females unemployment  are 62.5%.
Table -1
Age
Category
Male
Female
Total
Respondent in number
Respondent in percentage
Respondent in number
Respondent in percentage
Respondent in number
Respondent in percentage
15-19
5
12.5
9
22.5
14
35
20-24
10
25
16
40
26
65
Total
15
37.5
25
62.5
40
100
Source: primary source
Therefore, when we look the whole of the Mekelle city unemployment is rate age category. Above 60% of men and women are found in the age group of (20-24) the remain are covers under 40% .in general the data indicates that female has higher experience than men level of unemployment
Although this  indicate as   the mostly  high Youth employment rates have fallen significantly, and many youth seem to enter the labor market via low quality so Mekelle city tray to develop  this age groups change to join within labor force.

  when we  have seen from the underline table-1  the marital status of the Mekelle city respondent .most of the youth unemployed are singe (unmarried )77.5% and the reaming has it is own  effect the .married 17.5%,household and divorce has 2.5%  it has little impact on unemployment rate.
Table -2
Status
Respondent in number
Respondent in percentage
Single
31
77.5
Married
7
17.5
House hold
1
2.5
Divorce
1
2.5
Total
40
100
Sources: primary source
Most of unmarried or single person has their own reason behind they haven’t work or the other means of to generate income to manage their families and the can get enough money from their family the remain house hold and divorce are the can get or thy depend friends and family

          The underline table-3 show as the  literacy rate among Mekelle  youth is low  from underline status  proportion to the illiterate youth  population .from the table the show certificate 2.5% ,male 2.5%  female  zero  and   elementary level 5% ,male none and female 5% it show as education level of  youth  first  and  second level of cycle  has the less level of education

Table -3
Educational
Background
Male
Female
Total
Respondent in number
Respondent in percentage
Respondent in number
Respondent in percentage
Respondent in number
Respondent in percentage
I never  studied
-
-
1
2.5
1
2.5
Elementary level
-
-
2
5
2
5
Secondary level
3
7.5
5
12.5
8
20
Vocational school
3
7.5
8
20
11
2.5
Certificate
1
2.5
-
-
1
2.5
Diploma
4
10
6
15
10
25
Degree

5
12.5
2
5
7
17.5
Total

16
40
24
60
40
100
Source; primary data
  as in unemployed most of vocational school finished 27% , female has 20% and male 7.5% it show as female has more chance to get in this education .and the diploma has 25% ,female get 15% and male10% and  the  secondary level has 20%,male 7.5%and female 12.5%and degree 17.5% ,female 5% and male 12.5%  so in Mekelle  city women has more chance to get education  more than mal attend in education  this result could show  as  to miss mach between the type of education  and requirement of labor market  .   
         The table  analysis  the condition  of unemployment from their family background .most of respondents  are government employee 30%, non government employee 27.5% ,business men  or women 22.5%   and farmer 12.5% the reaming  are  less factors like  parentless 5%, pensioner 2.5% this all respondent are their own side effect  for unemployment  problem in Mekelle   .

Table -4
Family
background 
Respondent in number
Respondent in percentage
Farmer
5
12.5
Government  employee
12
30
Non government employee
11
27.5
Business men and women
9
22.5
Pensioner
1
2.2
Pertness
2
5
Total
40
100
Source; primary data
   As the empirical data indicate the most of unemployed men and women their family background show as government employed and non government employee for theses purpose the unemployed men and women haven’t worry about get a job, because their family may be generate enough income for them .that why they don’t worry getting work .the reaming respondent are not getting enough income from their family. because of some of haven’t family and other are migrate from rural to urban  so this all things are  show as   result of unemployment in Mekelle respondent

3.2 Causes of unemployment

            From the underline tables respondent result Show as not interesting to work  so they have their own  reason not interesting  to work the figure show as the half  of them are not knowing by this table ,why not interested of respondent are not  explain their interest from  the underline table . they need to  choose others 55%,waiting for better job offer 12.5% and saw no possibilities for advancement  or work  would required to many hours  10%the reaming  tow are wages offer  were to low and work would require too few hours.

Table -1        
Reason
Respondent in number
Respondent in percentage
Wages offer were to low
3
7.5
Work would require to many
Hours
4
10
Waiting for better job offer
5
12.5
Saw no possibilities for
Advancement
4
10
Work would require too few
Hours
2
55
Other

22
5
Total
40
100
Source; primary source
Based on the empirical while finding a job is a challenge, even having a job does not guarantee the means to escape poverty.  Wagesfor urban paid employees are generally low, although significant differences are found across type of employer, sector and worker characteristics. The employers that pay higher media .Increased unemployed labor force and not interested to work are positive relation of underdeveloped. Which also raise challenges, particularly in terms of the expectations of youth? The abolished the job guarantee for educatedan uneducated. There was evidence that in the unskilled youth unemployment were not interested to work and choosing work without enough experts has effect on unemployment in Mekelle city.

             Unemployment in the developing country has expanded day to day activities that why unemployment didn’t get the solution stile not only in  Africa  even in Europe didn’t get the solution  so there   is cause of  unemployment  .the table -2 show respondent answers .unfair competitively  environment in job vacancies35%, on availability of job opportunities22.5% ,lack of capital to start new business 20%   and trained in a field of study did not work with it 17.5 %the reaming are financial in capability to purse farther education 2.5%.
Table -2
Reasons
Respondent in
Number
Respondent in
 percentage
Non availability of job opportunity
9
22.5
Unfair competitive environment
In job valances
14
35
Lack of capital to start new business
8
20
Trained in a field of study did not
Work with it
7
17.5
Financial in capability to pursue
Farther education
1
2.5
Other
1
2.5
Total
40
100
Source; primary source
  When we see in detail the great cause for the expansion of unemployment in Mekelle city is because of unfair competitive environment, off course there are some office responsible to give equal chance of for all of people to get but most of are not interested to annoyed or post vacancy to all of people even they post new vacancy so the cause of unfair competitive environment is corruptions and bribery.
 The other reasons for unemployment as the respondent said non availability of job opportunity  even there are many vacancies ,that are post in the notice board  ,but the fact is all most vacancies are require ,work experience ,because of this requirement many unemployment men  and women are segregated from participation .
 Apart from the above reason lack of capital to start new business is the great challenge for unemployment as we know that currently most people are interested to start their own business (becoming self employment) .because it have on advantages regarding to job security, flexible working hours, give order instead on receiving order implement the idea what you generate without any hesitation so people need to starter their own business, but the question is lack or shortage of capital.
  To sum up the reason what the respondent replay indicates that the government should arrange all things depended on each reason, for example arrange credit facility for unemployed to create their own business, amend vacancy announcement based on the skills and professions instead of experience and on

                  Mekelle city respondents need to earn when they get work but yetthe attractiveness of an employer and job quality is clearly multi-dimensional. This goes beyond wages, and includes hours worked, and job attributes, including occupational health and safety, non-wage benefits, employer’s adherence to core labor standards, employer/worker affiliation to statutory social security schemes, commuting distance, employment and earnings stability and career development prospects Want to earn  Wage relativities mean and median  by skill category and type of employer .
Table -3
Wish to earn
Respondent in
Number
Respondent in
 percentage
300-700
9
22.5
701-1300
6
15
1301-2000
9
22.5
2001-3000
5
12.5
3001-4000
11
27.5
Total
40
100
Source; primer source
The above table show as most of  them are need to earn  high level of  incomes like ( 3001-4000)27.5 % ,and some of them are wish to get  the less  level income  ( 1301-2000),(300-700) 22.5% the reaming  are less to interested to earn low earning income (2001-3000)12.5 % and (701-1300) 15%.
              Unemployment person can have face problem to start new business   when look the respondent have face problem finding job, self employed them self and it show as result in percentage .most of them are face lack of getting facility of land training credit and license30%, difficult to get suitable partner 27.5%and group collapse for different reason market interact the ramming are not expressed inthis part it mines they face other problem we have gap to their choice other 17.5%.
Table -4
Problem 
Respondent in
Number
Respondent in
 percentage
Difficult to get suitable partners
11
27.5
Lack of getting facility of land
Training and credit and license 
12
30
 Group collapse for different reasons market interact
10
25
 Other
7
17.5
Total
40
100
Source; primary source
              As the above table indicate that 30% of unemployed men and women get a higher challenge on to start new business, lack of getting facility like land training credit and license, the remaining 27.5% said that the problem is difficult to get suitable partners for different reasons (marketed interaction).the other 17.5% respondent saying because of skill how a new business. We know that to start a new business there is a perquisite that is getting proper training about business management, getting work area, license from the government and startup capital .but the great challenge unemployed men were setup capital  provide loan  for unemployed  with in bad credit can help them live better life style and fulfill their goals in the life however ,the truth is that banks and other financial institution    prefer to give away loans to those having a fixed income every month ,irrespectively whether self employed or working in a firm this is because the risk of customer  defaulting on monthly installments of the loan in this case .it is well accepted faceted that giving loan for the unemployed with no bank account it is not an easy task there are many formalities which a loan seeker needs to complete to get a loan approved, in case of unemployed people ,banks will property screen out .the financial position of the person applying   for alone assists such as properties or real estate ,bank deposited  share and bond would be checked before arriving at a conclusion that person is deserving candidate for alone ,banks and finance are interested to judge that giving loan for those individual whose repayment capacity is high.

3.3 consequence of unemployment

           The high level and duration of urban unemployment in Ethiopia raises a number of questions about measurement, drivers and policy implications. The high incidence and depth of urban poverty, and lack of unemployment benefits, would a priori suggest that unemployment is simply not an option for most Ethiopians. This would seem to hold even if available employment opportunities offer only subsistence earnings, since relatively few families can afford to subsidize their unemployed children for extended periods. Perhaps, then, the respondent extent of unemployment is a measurement issue.  Under table -1 show asrespondent participation in illegal activities 25%, looking for away outs to leave their city 20%,they become frustrated and are addict to some drink, smoke and obliged to sell fixed assets to make alive 15 %, motive to work serve the people and purse for their education, skill and quarrel with families for financial requirement 12.5%
Table -1
Consequences of
Unemployment
Respondent in
Number
Respondent in
 percentage
Become frustrated and are addict
To some drink ,smoke
6
15
Motive to work serve the people  and purse for their education, skill
5
12.5
Quarrel with families for financial
Requirement 
5
12.5
Participation in illegal activities
10
25
Looking for away outs to leave their city 
8
20
Obliged to sell fixed assets to make alive
6
15
Total
40
100
Source; primary source
          Interesting   to earns they will have work and consequences of unemployment   are unemployed for the   consequence of unemployment person for the futures are government thinks with budget or total expenditure the Unemployment has obvious affects on individuals communities family and political entities ,according to the data what is collect that 25%ofthe respondents said that “because of unemployment we make participate in illegal activities “around 20%looking far away outs to leave the city15%of unemployment’s are obliged to sell fixed assets to some drink ,smoke or gamble .12.5of them are motivates to work serve the people and purse for their education is skilled and quarrel with families for financial requirement . General high unemployment creates huge cost for individual and for the economy as a whole, thereare no positive impacts to all instead of loss of income conflict and gamble people interested to migrate one country to other, civil war can be takes so these whole things are the main purpose or consequence of youth unemployment in the country. 

3.4    Possible solution of the Urban Unemployment Problem

               The respondent show as how much they  are interested  to get  solution of unemployment  problem and  increment  of creating new job and self employee.The performance of urban labor  in Ethiopia has been disappointing, even with the acceleration in growth in recent years. Jobs growth has been slow, and way below what is needed to productively employ urban residents looking for work; unemployment is thus high. Even for those who have income earning opportunities, these are typically in the informal sector and very low paid. Compounding the challenges of sluggish job creation and low pay are the particular disadvantages faced by women and men youth.
Our respondent is that these dismal outcomes can be traced back, at least in part, to segmentation of the labor market. In effect what we see is an urban economy that is to a large extent cut into three segments the relatively privileged public sector; the private formal, and the large informal economy, which is mainly small scale and more ‘survival’ than entrepreneurial. To explore this respondent result, this table seeks to explain the crating new business and pattern of job creation in Mekelle and examine the policy and other factors which are generating the observed outcomes.
Table -2
Statement
Respondent in  percentage
Strong
agree
Agree
normal
Disagree

Strong
disagree
Total
The government should create new jobs in
The public sector
50
30
10
7.5
2.5
100
The government should encourage establishment  and expansion of private business
67.5
27.5
5
-
-
100
The government out to support the unemployed with finance and training
45
40
15
-
-
100
Provide proper educational system that used create self employment
32.5
50
5
10
2.5
100
Government should provide loans to you had youth
50
45
2.5
2.5
-
100
Government should provide working /saving place
45
30
7.5
17.5
-
100

Total
290
222.5
45
30
5
100
Source; primary source

        As indicate the above table largely number of respondent  above halve 67%strongely agree it mines most of the respondent  are one hundred percent  believe on the government should encourage establishment and expansion of private business better way for reducing unemployment rate and increasing economic growth the development of expansion private business on the other way 50%,of the respondent said the government should create new jobs in the public sector and government should provide loan to you had youth it must the solution government expanded new investment ,small scale business to discourage unemployment rate on the other hand 45%of respondent strong interest on government out to support the unemployment with finance and training ,government should provide working and saving place ,actually this way might be reduce unemployment rate because if there is large number of microfinance association ,youth will try to borrow many from association after the long period  he is get his own business therefore he is out of inactive labor or reduce unemployment by the effort of him to be  conclude this table presentation there are three major opportunities in Mekelle city according to the respondent response I try to list by rank
1st. Government should encourage establishment and expansion of private business n
2nd. the government should create new jobs in the public sector and government should provide loan to you had youth.
3rd. the government should provide working and saving place and the government out to support unemployed with fiancé and training. 

               The area of training that is help full to ease unemployment and foster self employing attitude and capability. The training  are  motivation for  increment  of public sector employment and  creating new job training   is grounded in its relative size, and the effects of public sector employment and expansion of new moderation or technological system are purposely  it  economical development  and new  skilled  labor market competitive  perfectly  in  market it show as all labor demanded  and supply decided by market . It mines most of developed countries flow this way that why education and training trends. A somewhat distinct issue, which is the need for Government to be able to recruit and sustain the needed to deliver on its development agenda, is addressed in the concluding respondent. The basic questions explored here are whether the public sector is a good place for individuals to work, and whether the wages and terms of employment in the public sector push up costs in private sectors.
Table -3
Area of training
Respondent in
Number
Respondent in
 Percentage
Social science and business
11
27.5
Agriculture and rural development
9
22.5
Information  technology
9
22.5
Electric  city
1
2.5
Construction
7
17.5
Medicine /healthy science
3
7.5
Total
40
100
Source; primary source
                As it s indicate on the above most of the respondent interested to trine social science and business 27.5%, agriculture and rural development and information technology 22.5%, and construction 17.5%the reaming are not more interested to learn electric city 2.5% and medicine or health science 7.5% it show as most of them are not able to learn or no knowhow. the majority of respondents believe that social science and business is used reduce unemployment rate because currently our country Ethiopia is expanded new business to create self employment as the respondent 22.5%is now economic deepened  on  agriculture and reason is now all things what is made wrong without information technology ,so this all thing is the necessary for expanding agriculture ,fertilizer ,creating a job for them like  computer center ,computer maintenance ,data base development and website development .  17.5%of the respondent said that construction engineering field are better to create self employment ,because now the government is focused on engineering and construction area ,so it is an easy way to get job opportunity and we will be constructor by the studying the field of engineering . Thereaming 7.5 % and 2.5%respondent said medicine or healthy science and electric city field. are used to create self-employment, study the field of healthy science and electric city engineering because the field at recent time government are need more this field to their drafting project uses or government gives special attain for it not only in Ethiopia, even if in Ethiopia.















Chapter four

4. Conclusionand recommendation

4.1 Conclusion

         According to the finding result  the researcher gives his own conclusion .unemployment’s are widely spread in Mekelle city especially under the age category (20-24).as we have seen this age category it indicates young generation .it is clear that they have a potential to change anything .and can create something new .but most of them in this age category are unemployed or jobless  so it show  as the most of  urban developing countries has face to use youth  labor force   to change economic of the one countries but leaders are not more working this hot labor force .according to the result most of women respondent  are jobless and its hits them much harder in crime condition  than man.
They are used to their roles or breadwinners and now need to adapt to being households. Women also more inclined to stay with unemployed .parents as they instinctively security for their future children. due to this reason most unemployed women were not marriage or they are single .the previous and at recent times  shows most of women are not give to chance to educate themselves  because of their family believe and the customs  of peoples.
The major causes that affect unemployment were measure. the target  respondents agree with the major cause of unemployment is unfair competitive  environments in job vacancies and non availability of job opportunity even if they need to start    venture .unemployed individual have to go through a right economic crunch the are   able to get unfair competitive  environment job vacancy   opportunity .this may  lead  looking far away outs to leave their  city and  to decline in their personal earning income and no one interesting  to work unfair condition of mood they become frustrated and are addicted to smoke ,drink or gamble  crimes.non availability of job opportunity is sure to have a deep impact on their expensiveness .due to this reason most unemployed men  and women obligated to sell fixed asset and quarrel with families for financial requirement in order to full file their financial requirement .to solve the problem
Urban youth unemployment has not only created from the imbalance between the labor force Growth and overall economic growth but it has also aggravated by the rural urban migration .mismatch between job opportunities and aspirations. Increasing urbanization and increasing concentration of resource in urban areas becomes increasingly overcrowded with high rates of youth unemployment 

4.2   Recommendation

Every city administration need to solve the problem of unemployment at all from the city .but there are different problem that occurs incidentally due political, economical and social issue. However, the researcher recommended to the city administration as follows.
  • The city administrator should give additional vocationaltraining for jobless individuals and indicates the way how to create -self employment.
  • and if they are self employed ,they can develop self confidence and independent  i.e. they can read their families ,and there is nothing of making art from their families with their families and obliged to sell their personal assets 
  • .launching establishing the government should encourage and expansion of private business,investment and create new jobs in the public sector is not enough to reduce unemployment level without effective follow up.
  • Government small enterprise and    industry bureau should be giving technical advice for them in order to improve the production capacity and self- employed. It is implementing effectively small enterprise and    industry bureau can create employment opportunities to many peoples. So this is enough to solve the problem of unemployment.
  • financial institution have great responsibility on provision of loan to micro and small enterprise with low interest rate as well as without collateral requirement for the loan what they provide .
  • in addition to this they should be giving advice on investment and activity imitating them to save some amount of money  and solve unemployment problem
  • should encourage and  expansion of private business , investment  and create new jobs in the public sector .however if there is reflect under supervision of  unfair competitive  environment  in job vacancy   opportunity and non availability of job opportunity
















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